In siddha medicine, the process of pudam is employed to obtain the required medicinal product either by combining or separating from one another. Certain medicinal product preparation requires long lasting heat and the direct contact of fire on that source product also should be avoided. For those specific cases, the dried cow dung called varatti is used for this pudam.
According to the amount of varatti used, the pudam is categorized accordingly. Agathiyar in his book, “Agathiyar Vaatha Sowmiyam”, explained this as follows.
ஆமப்பா புடந்தனக்கு நிதானங்கேளு
aamappa pudanthanakku nithaanang aelu
அப்பனே காடையது எருவென்றாகும்
appanae kaadaiyathu eruvenraakum
நாமப்பா கவதாரி எருமூன்றாப்பா
naamappaa kavathaari erumoonraappaa
நன்மையுள்ள குக்குடந்தான் எருபத்தாகும்
nanmaiyulla kukkudanthaan erupaththaakum
நாமப்பா வராகபுடம் எருஐம்பதாகும்
naamappaa varaakappudam eruaiumpathaakum
தயவான கனபுடந்தான் எருநூறாகும்
thayavaana kanapudanthaan erunooraakum
ஓமப்பா கெஜபுடந்தான் ஆயிரமுமாகும்
oamappa kejapudanthaan aayiramaakum
உத்தமனே கைமுறையாய்ப் புடமாய்ப்பாரே
uththamanae kaimuraiyaaip pudamaaippaarae.
- அகத்தியர் (Agathiyar)
Agathiyar in his above poem says that, Pudam employing one varatti is called “kaadaip pudam”, if three varattis are used then, it is termed as “kowthaarip pudam”, pudam using 10 varattis is called “kukkoo pudam (saevar pudam)”, pudam using 50 varattis is called “varaaka pudam (panri/pig pudam)”, the process of using 100 varattis in pudam is called “kana pudam”and process of using 1000 varattis is called “kaja pudam (yaanai/ elepahant pudam)”.
Apart from this, using 96 varattis in pudam is called "manal maraivu pudam".
Another process of pudam involves usage of goat dung, which is termed as “poomip pudam”. This process involves, putting 5 virarkadai length of goat dung for pudam.
Some other pudam process is also employed where; the fire has no direct contact on source material. However, this process involves indirect heating mechanism.
Umip pudam - This involves two types. One method is immersing the source product inside this umi and taken out after specific period. Another method involves burning that umi (the husk of rice) and produce necessary heat for pudam.
Thaaniyap pudam – According to the need, the source product is buried in paddy or in any grains.
Suriyap pudam – Placing the ingredients in sun rays to make dry it.
Chandrap pudam – Placing the ingredients in moon rays.
Paruvap pudam – Placing the medicinal ingredients in open space on full moon day.
Amaavaasaip pudam - placing the medicinal ingredients in open space in new moon day.
Panip pudam – During snowy season, placing the required ingredients in that snow and taking out after specified time.
Pattaip pudam - Make a hole in specific tree and place the materials. Inside the hole and close it with the same left out particles of that tree. After the specified time or days, we can take out the material out.
Apart from these, there are certain other pudam like “manithap pudam”, “gurup pudam”, which should be taught or known only through appropriate guru.
Original – www.siththarkal.com
Translated by Lalilthambika Rajasekaran